Drucker’s Insights On Leadership

The Effective Leader

Bob Stinson RLS Focused Solutions

leader In two previous articles, we discussed results-based leadership and some of the possible methods of making that happen. I want to share with you some of the thoughts written by the late Peter F. Drucker in an article entitled What Makes an Effective Executive published in the June 2004 issue of Harvard Business Review. In this article, he provides excellent insights into the development of your leadership style. His analysis is broken down into three major categories with steps within each. They include:

  • Get the knowledge you need
    • What needs to be done?
    • What is the right thing to do?
    • Convert the knowledge into action
      • Develop an Action Plan
      • Take Responsibility for Decisions
      • Take Responsibility for Communicating
      • Focus on Opportunities, Not Problems
      • Ensure Company-wide Accountability
        • Run Productive Meetings
        • Think and say “WE” not “I”

What Needs to Be Done?

Yes, what needs to be done, not what you need to do. Often a leader enters into a new position with a preconceived idea of what he wants to get done and, upon arrival, finds that there are issues of greater importance. This is true in business, charitable organizations and government. When George H. Bush ran for President in 1988, his most remembered campaign promise was, “read my lips, no new taxes”. But when he was elected and his understanding of the issues involved, he had to ask for an increase in taxes. The pundits ridiculed him for breaking a campaign promise, but in fact he showed great leadership in addressing the issue.

As a result of this knowledge gathering exercise, not just one but many issues will be identified. Trying to address them all at the same time will lead to a lack of focus and a diluted effort. The question becomes, “What needs to be done right now?” Prioritization of issues to be addressed must occur to effectively make progress.

What is the Right Thing to Do?

What is the right thing to do for the enterprise? Not, what is the right thing to do for me, the owners, the stockholders, the employees, or the executives?  Agonizing over the shareholders should become secondary.

The great majority of businesses in our county are family owned. Often family considerations need to be included in decision making. When it comes to promotions or the filling of a vacant position, a family member should not be considered unless they are the best qualified. Family members should join the firm at an entry level position and rise through the ranks based upon their abilities not their relationships.

Developing an Action Plan

The first stage of converting the acquired knowledge into action is the development of an Action Plan. That plan should include a step-by-step list of actions items to be completed, the reposnsibilty of those who must complete each item and a deadline for the completion of each action. The amount of time required to complete the overall plan may be 6 months, 12 months or longer. It is all dependent on the complexity of the plan.

An action plan is the basis for time management for those involved. Since the organization has focused on a priority issue to be achieved, the manager who is responsible for completing an action item should dedicate the required time to meet the deadline. The basis of any time management exercise is to establish a priority on the use of time during the day.

An action plan is a statement of intention, not commitment. Each plan needs to be reviewed on a regular basis and changes made as appropriate. It is not a strait jacket. Drucker points out, “Napoleon allegedly said that no successful battle ever followed its plan.”

Take Responsibility for Decisions

A leader must hold those who are responsible for completing action steps accountable, while also helping them overcome obstacles. There needs to be the acknowledgment of the completion of a step as a job well done. There also needs to be negative consequences for individuals who are not regularly completing tasks. Progress against the action plan needs to be the subject of regular meetings where everyone reports tasks completed and issues encountered.

Communication to all those directly affected by the plan is a key element. They must understand how it affects them personally and how it effects the things they do. Communication to those who are not directly affected is also needed to apprise them of the changing environment.

Focus on Opportunities, Not Problems.

That is not to say that you sweep problems under the rug. They need to be taken care of, but their solution returns the organization to the status quo. Opportunities produce results which help the firm grow and prosper.

Change needs to be considered an opportunity, not a threat. Look for the gap between what is and what could be. Look for unexpected failures which might be a learning experience, unveiling a new opportunity. Look for innovative processes, products and services both within your industry and in another industry. Look for demographic changes which show the way to the need for specialized services or products. Don’t be threatened by technological change, embrace it.

Think and say “We” not “I”

If you want to take all the credit for success, you may find you are on your own. In 1993, theleader computer giant was in deep trouble and on the verge of going out of business. Computer technology had changed drastically and IBM needed to go through a revolutionary strategic and cultural change. The Board brought in a new CEO, Louis Gerstner Jr, who had been CEO at RJR Nabisco, and had little knowledge of computer technology. His accounting of the turnaround at IBM is chronicled in his book, Who Says Elephants Can’t Dance. Unlike many industry leaders who tell how they developed their organizations and take the credit, Mr. Gerstner dedicates the book to the team who made it happen and praises them for their efforts. The book is worth reading.

RLS Focused Solutions is a firm dedicated to the development of individual and organizational leaders. Through our many programs we first seek knowledge, then development plans, and finally work with our partners on implementation. Lets start a conversation today. Email bob@plangoals.com or call (910) 55-1286.

Possible Workshops

Pep Up Your Next Meeting with a Workshop

Linda Stinson

Linda Stinson

What goals do you have for your next conference or business meeting? Why go through the time and expense of bring a group of employees together? Why do association members want to spend their time and money coming to your annual meeting? It just can’t be because we always do it.

Here are some possible goals you should consider:

  • I want my employees or association members to develop a network of people who they can later contact to get help working on a difficult problem.
  • I would like participants to learn something new that becomes a “take-away” idea from the meeting.
  • I want participants to engage with each other in a focused way so they learn from each other.
  • We cannot just have a program of scripted speeches.

Let us suggest that whether it is a company retreat, an annual association meeting or even a lunch and learn, a structured workshop can help you satisfy those goals. Experts in education tell us that adults learn best when they are engaged in a focused discussion of a subject as opposed to listing to a lecture. This often provides the “take away” idea from the meeting.  Although there are plenty of social; opportunities for participants to meet others and start building a network, aworkshop provides the opportunity focused discussions of interest to all those attending. Breakout sessions with workshops give participants an opportunity to move away from the larger plenary session and meet people who they would not have met otherwise.

Over our years of working with individuals and organization on development program, we relish the opportunity to share some of that experience with others. We are often called on to do so at a lunch meeting, an organizational retreat or an annual meeting.  Our sessions are very interactive and typically consist of between 5 and 25 people. No one sits in the back waiting for the Power Point to start. Our approach with the meeting host is to select a general subject area and then customize it to the needs of the participants. We do present some basic theory, but our main emphasis is practical application.

Below are listed three workshop ideas and links to 10 to 15 minute YouTube Videos which provide a taste of each. These videos are Power Point presentations which only provide some of the basic content of each workshop. They are not representative of our presentation style or the total content of the workshops.

Hiring the Right People  

This workshop concentrates on finding methods to better improve the practice of hiring a new employee. Chick here to see Power Point Video

Better Use of Your Time

The subject in this session goes beyond the concept of time management into an overall approach of using the time available to be more successful.Click here to see Power Point Video

Developing A Customer Loyalty Plan


Consider that a satisfactory grade is a “C” and what is really needed to improve profitability is an “A”, this workshop explores that higher level methodology.Click here to see Power Point Video

These subjects only represent of a few of those possible and available. Call or email us to discuss your specific wishes and needs Bob@plangoals.com  (910) 575-1286

Results in Leadership

Getting Leadership ResultsBob & Linda Stinson

In our previous article, Leadership, Back to Basics, the difference between the Characteristic Model of Leadership and the Results Based Model was explored. It was concluded that the Results Based Model provided any individual the best means of performing their leadership role, because it concentrated on the achievement of goals versus the difficult modification of an individual’s personality. The next question is that after this conclusion, how to motivate the team or followers to achieve those desired results.

Daniel Coleman has authored an article entitled Leadership That Gets Results in the March 2000 issue of the Harvard Business Review. He presents the results of a study done by the consulting firm of Hay/McBar which used the data from 3,871 executives to show there are distinct leadership styles. These styles spring from different components of emotional intelligence. (See our previous article on Leadership and Emotional intelligence). It needs to be remembered that each leadership is situational and the styles discussed may work in one situation but not another. These styles are defined as:

  • Coercive
  • Authoritative
  • Affiliate
  • Democratic
  • Pacesetting
  • Coaching.
  • Coercive Leadership

A new manager, with the reputation of a turnaround artist, comes on the scene at a company which is not meeting the expectations of its board of directors. The manager, as expected, begins to reduce staff, sell off lackluster businesses and makes tough decisions. Decision making is top down, with other points of view discouraged and even punished.

Although this style may produce short-term results, in the long run it causes great damage. It kills new ideas and minimizes the flexibility necessary to prosper in an ever changing environment. Managers lose their sense of ownership and are reluctant to pursue the organization’s mission. There is no doubt that this style has its time and place, but there is a point where the rebuilding of the management team is needed. Knowing when that transition point occurs is critical.

Authoritative Leadership

The other day I was watching the Daily Show with Jon Stewart. His guest for the evening was leadershipHoward Schultz, CEO of Starbucks, who was explaining their new program to help finance college education for their employees. Schultz stated that at Starbucks they understand that if they treated their employees well, then the employees would treat their customers well. That would produce a great customer experience and that was at the core of their business success. Jon Stewart jokes that he thought that coffee was the core of the business and that illustrates the concept of the authoritative leadership style.

Authoritative leaders bring a clear vision and vibrant enthusiasm to their organizations. That vision and enthusiasm is contagious and permeates everyone in the organization including the store managers and the employees. The coffee has to be good, but the customer has to have a great experience. This is one of the most effective leadership styles, but requires the type of true insight only available from those who have a deep understanding of the keys to business success. Platitudes such as “we are a world class organization” are often seen in the vision statement of organization, but are just that, platitudes, which do not allow others to understand the organization’s vision for success.

Affilliative Leadership

One might observe that the authoritative leadership style of Howard Schultz described above is also affilliative. Let look at the difference. The authoritative style is about vision. The affilliative style is about people. The coercive style demands, “Do what I say,” and the authoritative urges, “Come with me”. The affilliative leader says, “People come first.”

The affilliative leader strives to keep people happy and builds strong emotional bonds. This builds strong loyalty. This builds upon strong communication, where ideas and inspirations are shared. The organization has great flexibility.

Although this approach sounds impressive, it does have its downsides. First, there is always a great diversity in the personality of the follower, causing a complex issue in building those emotional bonds. What builds loyalty in one person may not do the same in others. This style may also lead to mediocre perseverance by some. This approach would not be used on its own but only in combination with others.

Democratic Leadership

resultsThis style is exactly what its title says; the process is all about a democratic system where many are involved. It involves a series of meetings where the subject is discussed, plans are made and goals are set. It is a time-consuming process and cannot be one used in a crisis situation. It is often used when the leader does not have knowledge needed to set goals and plans, therefore the knowledge must come from the followers. There is always a great degree of buy-1n by those involved with this approach. It should be avoided when the employees are not competent or informed to offer sound advice.

Pacesetting Leadership

This style is similar to the coercive style but even more demanding. It needs to be used only sparingly. The leader sets extremely high performance standards and exemplifies them himself. He quickly pinpoints those who don’t measure up to those standards and demands more from them. If they don’t rise to the occasion they are quickly replaced. Employees feel overwhelmed and feel the pacesetter doesn’t trust them.

An engineering department made it a practice to promote the best engineer to the position of supervisor. It was clearly understood that the reason for his promotion was his design proficiency. During the first meeting with the new supervisor, the design engineers would present their initial concepts on a design process. The supervisor because of his higher expertise and standards would then exert his new authority to override the concepts presented. This eventually led to creating a group of demoralized designers and a fall-off in productivity. In most cases, the new supervisor had to be demoted.

Coaching Leadership

This leadership style can be very effective in helping people overcome their weaknesses and build new competencies. It works very well when employees are already aware of their weaknesses and are up to improvements. It works poorly when they are resistant to learning and changing their ways. Because of the constant communication and time involved,it is the least popular style of leadership.

Leadership is situational; therefore one leadership style doesn’t work every time. Good leaders can employ multiple approaches or approaches in combination. Crisis situations may require the coercive style to start, but a later change to the authoritative as conditions improve. A democratic style may be best used when the change that is necessary requires agreement of those involved and adequate time to implement. Knowledgeable business coaches, because of their wide range of experience, can help analyze the situation and provide the guidance necessary.

Bob and Linda Stinson are partners in RLS Focused Solutions. They specialize in leadership and organizational development. visit: http://www.plangoals.com



Business Metrics

Finding Good Metrics for Business Success

metricsLarge organizations, with sophisticated managementsystems track performance measurements with a religious fervor. What about small businesses and individuals? Do they need and have these measurements of business success? Good metrics go beyond the traditional sales and profit figures from the financial statements. These are measurements of history or time passed. Good metrics measure the present and future trends. They indicate issues that can be addressed in the present, not issues that must recalled from the past.


Years ago, I joined a very successful privately-owned company. Within a few weeks of my arrival, I metricswas concerned that the monthly financial report was usually published four to five weeks after the closing of the month and was somewhat incomplete. I discussed the issue with the company owner, who didn’t show much concern. His comment was that he could tell the current state of profitability by walking through the plant and listening to the sound of the machinery. The higher the level of machine noise indicated higher levels of profits. He also had a unique way of measuring cash flow. Every Thursday night he would play poker. Every Thursday morning he would request poker money from petty cash. If the funds for poker were there, all was well. His managers made a point to have those funds available.

 As the plant manager of a manufacturing plant, I made a habit of walking the floor at the start of our day shift (6:30 AM). I became concerned that at the appointed time to start work, many of the scheduled machines were not running. Workers were returning from the restroom or cafeteria and some were still reading the morning paper. We decided to start a metric on the percentage of machines running at the beginning of a shift. Over the course of a week, we observed that only 60% of the machines were running at 6:30 AM. A meeting was held with all the employees to discuss the issue. Charts were posted on bulletin boards showing the percentage of machine running each morning. The following day 98 % of the machines were running and that percentage continued. No new equipment was needed. No employee disciplinary action was required. New positive habits replaced old unproductive habits. Change occurred without conflict or  any unusual expense.

As a small business owner, think about what simple metrics you can use and are easy to track. In retailing, it might be daily sales or stock-outs. In a medical office, it could be patient’s wait time. In a service department, it might be telephone response time. In a sales department it might be backlog, the value of new proposals generated this week, or the percentage of proposals closed. With the selection, measurement, and reporting of any of these or others, management calls attention to the issues that are associated with the metric and prioritizes the list of  things people must do on a daily basis.

metricsIndividuals also need metrics. Baseball pitchers track their earned run average. Track stars track their workout speeds each day. Students track their grades in class. People who want to lose weight track their calories. Salesmen track the number of calls they make each day. Having metrics is the key part of any personal development program.

In management coaching, we often find that organizations lack meaningful metrics. It is an essential part of the goal planning process. It is a statement of current conditions. In most cases, it is the first thing we do with our clients. In large organizations computerized data retrieval may be necessary. Elsewhere simple observations and a note book are all that is necessary. In many cases, just the establishing of the metric will cause positive change to occur. In others, goal setting and action plans may be required. Change starts with being able to understand and measure the current state of performance.  A good business coach works with a client to get started with metrics and achieve greater levels of business success.

To learn more about the power of Metrics contact bob@plangoals.com

Non-Profit Organizational Success


Non-Profit Organizational Success

Business Success in a Non-Profit Organization

non-profitStrategic Planning has always been a keyleadership tool in the development of successful for-profit organizations. Its format and time scope may vary, but it serves as an important function in business success. It has helped many businesses focus their priorities on future growth and profitability.

What about non-profit charitable organizations? Although their objectives are not to generate a profit or provide its stockholders with a dividend, they must look into the future to increase its service to the communities it serves and find the necessary funding to support those services. Their ultimate success may not be defined as business success, but is measured in the effectiveness of their humanitarian service. Stripped of profitability goals and materialistic rewards, these organizations face enormous challenges in focusing their efforts and motivating those involved.
Leaders and managers of non-profit organizations have learned the benefits of developing and implementing a strategic plan. We have participated in these organizations and watched how the process has transformed good organizations into great organizations. Our roles in these transformations were either as the facilitators of the process or leaders with the organization. The need is great and the results are significant.
Let’s consider the following issues:
• What constitutes a typical leadership structure in a non-profit organization?
• What effect does strategic planning have on the function of a board of directors?
• What effect does strategic planning have on the staff, both paid and volunteered?
• How is a strategic plan best developed and implemented?

Leadership Structures

It is important to note, that when discussing non-profit organizations, a wide range of entities must be included. Local charities that might help the homeless or those with disabilities, churches, clubs such as Rotary or Lions, YMCAs, and scouts are all included in this category.
It has been our experience that there are two general organizational cultures within non-profit organizations. The first culture is one driven by a single leader, usually the founder. This individual has identified a need in the community and is passionate about addressing that need. The second model is usually a more well-established organization. The founder may no longer be involved and leadership comes from the board of directors. These people are passionate about continuing the service being provided.
Let’s call the first culture the founder-driven culture. One might characterize the leader of this type of organization as the charitable entrepreneur. He or she is the visionary. They have a picture of what can be. In the earliest stages of their planning, they realize they can go it alone. They need to solicit others who can bring to the developing organization one or several of the 3 W’s (Wealth, Wisdom, and Work). The founder is looking for followers who believe in the vision and will act as an extension of his own efforts. These people may possess or have access to the wealth necessary to fund the effort. They may have a skill or knowledge necessary to develop the organization such as publicity or grant writing. Their network within the community may be strong or they are simply hard workers.
In the founder-driven culture, leadership comes primary from the founder. He or she has the vision and is totally dedicated to its achievement. They look of others including the board of directors as followers. They can help but don’t interfere with the work the founder has to do. Most decisions are made by the founder and supported by staff and board. Conflict develops when the followers do not agree with the founder’s actions or decisions. These relations continue through the early years of most non-profitable organizations.
The second culture may be called the board-driven culture. This organization is one with a history and that history may include the departure of the founder. That is not to say that the organization is without operational leadership. That role is usually provided by an executive director who was hired by the board to manage the daily operation of the charity. In this situation, leadership can come from either the executive director or the board. These are often organizations such a Chamber of Commerce, a Red Cross Chapter or a local Rotary Club.

Effect of the Board of Directors

leadershipRegardless of the organizational culture, the most critical part of the strategic planning process is the beginning with the development of a Vision and Mission for organization. The Vision is a statement of nouns. It is how the organization is to be perceived by the community. What is its role? What is its value to the community? The Mission is a statement of verbs. What will the organization do to achieve its Vision? How will it be funded? What skills must it incorporate? How will it be staffed?
If you ask everyone in the room at the start of this process if they understand the purpose (Vision) and workings (Mission) of the organization, you should receive an overwhelming positive response. But in the process of defining those statements on paper, there will be much disagreement and possible conflict. We once worked with a management group, who had been working on developing a Mission Statement for over one year. Every week they would leave their meeting with a written statement, yet a week later someone would find a point of disagreement requiring a revision. The agreement reached on these two steps by the board and organization leaders produces a more focused effort by all involved.
People who join non-profit boards are good-hearted committed people, but for the most part they are uncertain in their roles. As the planning moves through the identification of critical goal categories, goal writing and action plans, the needs for individuals to take responsibility for specific assignments develop. At this point, board members can take on responsibilities or serve on a committee assigned with a specific task. Oh, I would love to work on the website. I would be glad to be on the financial committee. We would like to work together on a monthly newsletter.
The completion of a strategic plan also provides greater structure to the board meeting. In smaller and newer organizations, board meetings spend time on what will later become committee business. Discussion may include where to get tickets for an upcoming even printed or what the food at the next fund raising dinner will be. These decisions are best performed by individuals and committees not the board of directors. The board’s role becomes focused on the implementation of the strategic plan, issues which may arise and revisions when necessary. Individuals and committees should be asked to report progress at the board meetings on a regular basis. This provides the organization with feedback and control. Board meetings become more meaningful and of a shorter duration.

Effect on the Staff

Our observations consistently show that individuals who work in non-profit organizations are both business successdedicated to the organization’s purpose and hard working. They are either volunteers or are compensated at levels below what would be expected for similar work in the for-profit world. With good leadership, they will perform at the highest levels. With poor leadership, they will perform poorly, develop unproductive conflicts and eventually sever their involvement in the organization. Good leadership is greatly enhanced by a strategic plan and its implementation.
Working with a strategic plan minimizes conflicts which might arise between the board and the staff. It also provides opportunities to acknowledge the success of individuals and groups of staff in the achievement of goals. Recognition is a key to business success in that it increases morale and improves performance.

Developing and Implementing a Plan

When developing and implementing a strategic plan let’s consider four issues:
• Who should participate in development the plan?
• How long will it take to develop a plan?
• Who should facilitate the plan development?
• What about follow-up?
It is important to get a wide range of individuals involved in the planning process, but a much smaller group in crafting the written plan. Employees, board members, past board member, major donors, and clients should have input at the beginning. They may not sit in on the actual discussions, but can be included through interviews or questionnaires. They also may be asked to comment on the Vision and Mission Statements, once they are written. The group that actually develops and writes the plan should be small and include interested board members and key operational managers. The smaller group, with good facilitation and leadership, will arrive at the finished draft in a shorter amount of time
The length of time required to develop a plan varies. It should not be a never ending process, but cannot be done in one meeting. Time between sessions is necessary to reflect on what has been completed and the next step. Assignment or homework needs to be assigned to those drafting the plan to be completed before the next session. Some would like to develop their plan in a half day or full day retreat. Two half-days is preferable toa one day session. Regardless, outside work prior to the sessions and homework between the sessions is important.
The planning sessions need to have a facilitator who is experienced and from outside the organization. Strategic Planning is not a new process. Over the last 50 years many business managers have implemented the process for either a business or non-profit organization. There are many books, tapes and computer software available to explain the process. There will be those on your board who believe they can facilitate the organization through the process. They may even be experienced facilitators, but they may be too close to the subject to ask the right questions. Good facilitators ask good questions and an outsider has fewer prejudges. There is usually reluctance by the board members to spend money employing an experienced facilitator, but the cost of an ineffective plan or not getting everyone involved can be considerably higher. Find a facilitator you trust and discuss your budget. Some outside involvement and guidance is better than none. A complete program with an outside facilitator will provide the best return on your investment.
Monitoring of the plan implementation and feedback is critical. Too often plans are developed and put in a drawer to be reviewed at next year’s meeting. The review of the plan and progress in implementation should be a regular agenda item at board meetings. Some organizations have found it effective to have the facilitator return for a review meeting every 90 days for the first year. Planning is an investment of time and money and like any other investment, a return is expected. It is part of business success

We encourage you to contact us at RLS Focused Solutions to discuss any aspect of the planning process or issues you have encountered. bob@plangoals.com

Coaching People to Think

Coaching People to ThinkBob & Linda Stinson

As a young co-op student with General Motors, one of my first assignments was to work in the personnel department (we now call it HumanRelations). People would come in to apply for work. We would tell them to fill out an application and we would keep it on file. One day I was standing at the counter talking to a supervisor in the department when an applicant came through the door and asked, “What are the qualifications necessary to work here”. The supervisor replied, “Just a strong back and a weak mind”

Decades ago those were the qualifications for many jobs in the manufacturing sector. But today our requirements for employees, even in the manufacturing sector, have drastically changed. Those simple repetitive job functions have been replaced by robotic or computerized devices. And when automation is uneconomical, the job has been transferred to a low-skill, low wage geographic area of the world. This trend is evident not only in manufacturing, but in all other sectors of the economy.

Employees now need to make decisions, do problem solving, and be creative. Delegation and empowerment are the keys to flatten organizational structures and increasing productivity. The need for a strong back has given way to the need for a strong mind. This drastically changes the role of a manager or supervisor from that of giving intimate direction and control of their staff, to that of encouraging them to think for themselves. This calls for leaders to become the coaches of their team members, requiring new skills and attitudes.

In increasing employee performance, some have adopted the iceberg model, which suggests that although some of behaviors are visible, most of our behaviors, thoughts, and feelings lurk below the surface.

Many employees are highly capable individuals who want to work and be smarter. They are crying for help and it is up to business leaders to learn how to ask the right questions and conduct truly engaging coaching conversations. Dr David Rock, author of Quiet Leadership, Six Steps to Transforming Performance at Work, suggests the following five-steps for establishing a coaching conversation and enabling self-directed learning:

  • Let the employee think through his specific issue. Avoid telling him what to do or giving advice. Ask questions about his though process.

  • Keep him focused on solutions not problems.

  • Challenge him to expand his thinking and stretch himself, instead of clinging to his comfort zone.

  • Focus on what he is doing well so you can play to his strengths.

  • Make sure there are clear processes behind every conversation. To be truly helpful, a coaching conversation requires permission to ask questions and explore possibilities.

As business and leadership coaches, we are continuously trying to see what lurks below the surface of the iceberg and help individuals achieve their full potential. All business leaders and managers need to develop these techniques. It is a key to business success in the 21st century and coaching can help. 

RLS Focused Solutions works on the development the full potential of organizations and individuals. Lets continue this conversation. Contact at bob@plangoals.com or call (910) 575-1286. Visit our Website: www.plangoals.com